Diabetes Mellitus : Type 1 and Type 2

Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States and accounts for approximately 46,833 deaths a year. Diabetes is a general term that describes two different forms and severities of this disease. Diabetes mellitus occurs secondarily to an inadequate production of insulin by the pancreas, or from an ineffective utilization of the insulin in the body. Insulin is a hormone which regulates the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood stream. Glucose is a critical source of energy utilized by every organ in the body and is the ONLY energy source utilized by the brain. Without insulin, the glucose level rises in the bloodstream, but the body is unable to effectively use it for the regulation of metabolism. Insulin is the necessary link that enables the body to transport glucose into the cells for energy metabolism.

DIABETES IS IDENTIFIED IN TWO FORMS TYPE 1 DIABETES: This refers to the form of diabetes that has its onset in childhood or adolescence. This can be an inherited disease. These patients are dependent on insulin injections to maintain normal body chemistry. Without insulin, they can be subject to diabetic ketoacidosis and death. Patients with type 1 diabetes are also commonly referred to as insulin dependent diabetics, because without it, death can result. TYPE 2 DIABETES: This form of diabetes most commonly occurs in middle aged, overweight people whose blood sugar is higher than normal. Type 2 diabetes is also referred to as adult onset diabetes. In most cases, these patients do not require insulin injections to control their diabetes, but can control the condition with a diabetes diet and weight reduction. These patients are usually not subject to the same severe chemical imbalances as the type 1 diabetics, but they can contract the same long term diabetic complications (see below).


1. DIABETIC RETINOPATHY: Damage to the retina (perceptive structural tissue of the eye) resulting in decreased vision and, possibly blindness.

2. KIDNEY DISEASE: The long term effects of diabetes can result in a steady decline in kidney function, or overt kidney failure.

3. STROKE: Diabetics have an increased risk of stroke.

4. HEART DISEASE: Increased risk of myocardial infarction (heart attack).


6. POOR WOUND HEALING AND SKIN ULCERS (foot problems are common)


8. PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY: damage to the peripheral nerves and altered sensation. Patients may complain of numbness, tingling, and/or burning pain to the extremities, hands, and feet.


Common symptoms of TYPE I DIABETES include: increased frequency of urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. Weight loss and increased fatigue may also be seen in the type 1 diabetic.

Common symptoms of TYPE II DIABETES include: increased hunger, increased thirst, increased urination, blurred eyesight, increased fatigue, numbness or tingling in the hands or feet, frequent infections, slow healing of cuts or sores, and impotence. Evaluation will include patient medical history and physical examination. The physical examination may reveal clues that indicate long standing diabetes is present. Random and fasting blood sugar testing is also be required. Glucose tolerance testing can help confirm this diagnosis. Blood tests for kidney profile and blood counts are also done. Urinalysis will show the excess presence of glucose.


1. Control of the symptoms of diabetes.

2. Achieve and maintain a desirable weight.

3. Achieve and maintain a healthy level of physical activity.

4. Achieve and maintain a near-normal blood glucose level (between 70 mg/dl and 140 mg/dl).

5. Achieve a feeling of well-being and control over diabetes.

Treatment of type 1 diabetes requires adherence to a strict diabetes diet and regular doses of insulin. Deviation from either will result in an imbalance that may lead to a potentially serious outcome. Patient education is now the cornerstone of good diabetes management. Tight control of blood glucose can
DECREASE the progression of diabetic complications. Treatment must start in childhood, moreover, the patient must learn how to check their own blood and urine glucose. Close medical follow-up is important in order to monitor any ensuing complications.

New technology is now available in the form of ambulatory glucose monitors that will automatically give you the appropriate dose of insulin required, based on your blood sugar level at the time of the reading. Your physician will discuss all the options of diabetes management with you.

Type 2 diabetes often can be controlled with weight reduction and regulation of the diet. Avoidance of heavily sugared foods (sweets) is often all that is necessary for adequate blood sugar control. In some cases, oral hypoglycemic agents (Orinase, Glucotrol) may be used to regulate blood sugar. These medications are taken on a fixed daily schedule in tandem with a consistent diabetes diet (in total calories). An Internist or Endocrinologist are the experts in the management of this problem.


There are several medications that can interfere with the regulation of diabetes. Steroid medications (i.e. Prednisone and Medrol) can increase blood sugar levels, making it very difficult to control blood sugar in the diabetic patient. Those patients who are "borderline" diabetics have great difficulty taking these medications. Beta-blocker antihypertensive medications can also cause serious complications for the diabetic patient and should be avoided.


Hope this article will provide you information about diabetes mellitus : type 1 and type 2.

dsds Influenza
dsds Folliculitis
dsds Fungal Nail Infection
dsds Fungal Throat Infection
dsds Anglion Cysts
dsds Gastrointestinal Bleeding
dsds Rubella
dsds Giardia Gastroenteritis
dsds Hyperthyroidism
dsds Graves Disease
dsds Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
dsds Esophagitis and Hiatal Hernia
dsds Hemochromatosis
dsds Hepatitis - Liver Disease
dsds Inguinal Hernias and Umbilical Hernias
dsds Herpes Genitalis
dsds Shingles or Herpes Zoster
dsds Herpetic Whitlow
dsds High Blood Pressure
dsds High Triglycerides
dsds AIDS
dsds Allergic Rashes, Reactions and Anaphylaxis
dsds Hyperemesis Gravidarum or Morning Sickness
dsds Primary Hyperparathyroidism
dsds Hypoglycemia
dsds Postural Hypotension
dsds Hypothyroidism
dsds Impetigo
dsds Impotence
dsds Paronychia
dsds Lymphangitis and Lymphadenitis
dsds Scabies Rash
dsds Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
dsds Rabies Infection
dsds Proctitis
dsds Pinworms
dsds Perianal Abscess
dsds Parotitis
dsds Mumps
dsds Meningitis
dsds Measles or Rubeola
dsds Malaria
dsds Lymphogranuloma Venerum
dsds Lyme Disease
dsds Laryngitis and Voice Strain
dsds Legionnaire's Disease
dsds Encephalitis
dsds Syphilis
dsds Tonsillitis and Pharyngitis
dsds Venereal Disease : Males
dsds Pertussis
dsds Labyrinthitis
dsds Insulin Reaction
dsds Irritable Bowel Disease
dsds Ischemic Bowel Disease
dsds Kawasaki Disease
dsds Kidney Disease And Kidney Failure
dsds Kidney Stones
dsds Tetanus
dsds Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
dsds Ludwig's Angina
dsds Pneumonia
dsds Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
dsds Meniere's Disease
dsds Migraine Headaches
dsds Multiple Sclerosis
dsds Myasthenia Gravis
dsds Mycoplasma Infection
dsds Paget's Disease
dsds Pancreatitis
dsds Peritonsillar Abscess
dsds Pericarditis
dsds Sickle Cell Anemia
dsds Scarlet Fever
dsds Reye's Syndrome
dsds Pediatrics : Diaper Rash
dsds Parkinson's Disease
dsds Thrombophlebitis
dsds Pleurisy and Pleuritis
dsds Pleurisy and Pleuritis
dsds Polio
dsds Presbycusis
dsds Psoriasis
dsds Pulmonary Embolism
dsds Raynaud's Disease
dsds Retinal Detachment
dsds Rheumatic Fever
dsds Otitis Externa
dsds Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
dsds Sinusitis or Sinus Infection
dsds Sepsis
dsds Schatzki's Ring
dsds Sarcoidosis
dsds Tuberculosis
dsds Temporal Arteritis
dsds Temporomandibular Joint Disease
dsds Tendinitis and Tennis Elbow
dsds Testicular Torsion
dsds Toxic Shock Syndrome
dsds Trigeminal Neuralgia
dsds Urinary Retention
dsds Warts


Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Acute Glomerulonephritis
Alcohol Withdrawal
Alcoholic Cirrhosis
Allergic and Infectious Conjunctivitis
Allergic Rashes
Allergic Rhinitis
Alzheimers Disease
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Blood Pressure

Bladder Cancer
Brain Tumors
Breast Cancer
Ovarian Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer
Multiple Myeloma
Lung Cancer
Lung Cancer Guide
Laryngeal Tumor
Lymphomas and Hodgkin's Disease
Head and Neck Cancer
Colon and Rectal Cancer
Cervical and Uterine Cancer

Cushing's Disease and Syndrome
Flu (Influenza)
Guillain-Barre' Syndrome
Peripheral Vascular Disease
l Threatened and Spontaneous Abortions
d Skin Abscess and Pilonidal Abscess
d Acne and Skin Blemishes
d Guillain-Barre Syndrome
d Diabetes Guide
d Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 and Type 2
ee Ethanol Induced Hepatic Cirrhosis
d Anal Fissures and Hemorrhoids
d Bursitis
e Anemia and it's Causes
e Myocardial Infarction and Angina
r Ankylosing Spondylitis
s Anorexia Nervosa
a Gastroenteritis
s Anxiety Reactions and Hyperventilation
x Aortic Stenosis
dd Appendicitis
es Cardiac Arrhythmias
ww Osteoarthritis or Degenerative Joint Disease
ss Gouty Arthritis
ee Rheumatoid Arthritis
s Septic Arthritis
s Aspiration Pneumonia
dd Asthma
ww Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease
s Common Fungal Rashes
df Atrial Fibrillation
e Roseola Baby Measles
rr Mitral Valve Prolapse
dff Otitis Media and Barotitis Media
ss Bartholin's Cyst and Abscess
ss Skin Cancer and Malignant Melanoma
ss Bell's Palsy
ss Muscle Tension Headache
ss Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
dsd Urinary Tract Infections
dd Blepharitis
dd Deep Venous Thrombosis
ss Body, Head, and Pubic Lice
dd Osteomyelitis
dds Botulism
dd Intestinal Obstruction or Bowel Obstruction
dd Mastitis
dd Pediatrics Bronchiolitis
dd Bronchitis
dd Buerger's Disease
dd Bunions
dd Cervical and Uterine Cancer
dd Cancers of the Head and Neck
ww Prostate Disease and Prostate Cancer
s Testicular Cancer
ss Vaginitis and Vaginal Yeast Infections
aa Mouth Ulcers or Canker Sores
ss Shock
aa Congestive Heart Failure
ss Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
ss Chondromalacia
ss Narcolepsy
dsd Cataracts
dsd Cellulitis or Skin Infection
s Central Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusions
s Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
s Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease
d Cervical Lymphadenitis
s Cystic Fibrosis
d Styes, Hordeolums, and Chalazions
s Chancroid
ww Chest Wall Pain and Costochondritis
ee Chicken Pox
dd Gallbladder Disease
ss High Cholesterol
ss Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
dd Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
dd Swimmer's Itch
dd Cocaine Overdose
dd Cold Sores or Fever Blisters
dsds Upper Respiratory Infections or Colds
dsds Ulcerative Colitis
dsds Otosclerosis and Conductive Hearing Loss
dsds Condyloma Acuminata
dsds Dermatitis and Eczema
dsds Allergic and Infectious Conjunctivitis
dsds Seizures and Epilepsy
dsds Crohn's Disease
dsds Pediatrics : Croup
dsds Skin Cysts
dsds Dehydration and Electrolyte Imbalances
dsds Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia
dsds Gingivitis and Periodontal Disease
dsds Diabetic Ketoacidosis
dsds Diabetic Neuropathy
dsds Diabetic Retinopathy
dsds Pediatrics Diphtheria
dsds Dissecting Thoracic Aneurysm
dsds Diverticulitis
dsds Vaccination Schedule
dsds Drug Withdrawal
dsds Muscular Dystrophy
dsds Peptic Ulcer Disease and Gastritis
dsds Menstrual Pain and Primary Dysmenorrhea
dsds Tubal Pregnancy
dsds Endometriosis
dsds Epididimytis
dsds Pediatric and Adult Epiglottitis
dsds Epistaxis
dsds Mononucleosis
dsds Pediatrics Febrile Seizures
dsds Endometritis
dsds Fibrocystic Breast Disease
dsds Menopause
dsds Ovarian Cystic Disease
dsds Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
dsds Placenta Previa
dsds Placental Abruption
dsds Preeclampsia or Toxemia of Pregnancy
dsds Premenstrual Syndrome
dsds Uterine Fibroids
dsds Uterine Prolapse
dsds Fever Control Instructions
dsds Pediatrics Fever in Infants Under 2 Years


Become a regular visitor at our "Health Care Blog" - Here are the latest blog entries:


Home © health-care-information.org. All rights reserved.

Diseases | Drugs | Injuries | Medical Tests | Home Remedies | Herbal Medicines

Health Care BLOG || Your Feedback & Suggestions || Fitness


Disclaimer: Health-Care-Information.org is designed for educational purposes only and is not engaged in rendering medical advice or professional medical services. Any medical or other decisions should be made in consultation with your qualified health care provider. We will not be liable for any complications, injuries or other medical accidents arising from or in connection with the use of or reliance upon any information on this web site.